Employer requires that safety planning and practice for commonplace tasks be as thorough as for operations with unusual hazards. Commonplace tasks make up the greater part of the daily activities of most employees and, not unexpectedly, offer more potential sources of accidents with injuries and property damage. Every operation or work assignment begins and ends with handling of materials. Whether the material is a sheet of paper (paper cuts are painful) or a cylinder of toxic gas, accident risks can be reduced with thorough planning. Identifying obvious and hidden hazards should be the first step in planning work methods and job practices. Thorough planning should include all the steps associated with good management from job conception through crew and equipment decommissioning. Most of the material presented in this chapter is related to the commonplace and obvious. Nevertheless, a majority of the incidents leading to injury, occupational illness and property damage stem from failure to observe the principles associated with safe material handling and storage. A less obvious hazard is potential failure of used or excessive motorized handling or lifting equipment. The Responsible Safety Officer must be notified whenever it is desired to acquire a crane, forklift truck, or other motorized handling or lifting equipment from excised sources. READ ABOUT FORKLIFT SAFETY
OSHA Standards for Forklifts
Forklift users must familiarize themselves with and comply with OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1910.178 and ANSI B56.1. Modifications and additions must not be performed by the customer or user without manufacturer’s prior authorization or qualified engineering analysis. Where such authorization is granted, capacity, operation and maintenance instruction plates, tags, or decals must be changed accordingly. If the forklift truck is equipped with front end attachments other that factory installed attachments, the user must ensure that the truck is marked with a card or plate that identifies the current attachments, shows the approximate weight of the truck with current attachments and shows the lifting capacity of the truck with current attachments at maximum lift elevation with load laterally centered. The user must see that all nameplates and caution and instruction markings are n place and legible. The user must consider that changes in load dimension may affect truck capacities.
Because forklift trucks may become hazardous if maintenance is neglected of incomplete, procedures for maintenance must comply with ANSI B56.1 Section 7 and OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1919.178 g.
Maximum efficiency, reliability, and safety require that the use of fork extensions be guided by principles of proper application, design, fabrication, use, inspection, and maintenance. The user must notify the Responsible Safety Officer before purchasing extensions or having them fabricated. Fork extensions are only appropriate for occasional use. When longer forks are needed on a regular basis, the truck should be equipped with standard forks of a longer length. Routine on-the-job inspections of the fork extension must be made by the fork lift operator before each use unless, in the judgment of the supervisor, less frequent inspections are reasonable because of his or her knowledge of its use since the last inspection. Extensions must be inspected for evidence of bending, overload, excess corrosion, cracks, and any other deterioration likely to affect their safe use. All fork extensions must be proof load tested to establish or verify their rated capacities, whether they were supplied commercially or fabricated at Employer. A load equal to the rated capacity of the pair at a particular load center multiplied by 1.15, must be placed on each fork extension pair and fork assembly and supported for a period of five minutes without any significant deformation. Rated capacity must be determined at significant load centers, including the midpoint of the extension and at the tip. Once determined, the rated capacity and load center information must be shown by stamping or tagging the extensions in a protected location of low stress. A mechanical engineer or designer must witness the proof load test. Whenever evidence of deterioration is detected or whenever the extensions have been overloaded, magnetic particle inspection must be performed.
Safety Inspection, Responsibility
Safety Training, Videos, and Books: Forklift Safety information for Forklift Construction, General Industry & Compliance Kits in Spanish and English.
Each operator is responsible for the safety and safety inspection of his or her lifting devices (such as screw pin shackles, hoist rings, commercial equipment, etc.) and for its lifting fixtures (such as speeder bars, special slings, Employer-designed equipment, etc.) All lifting fixtures designed at Employer must be proof tested to twice their maximum rated loads before they are placed in service. A magnetic particle inspection or other appropriate crack detection inspection is required after the proof test. the capacity must be marked on the lifting fixture so that it is clearly visible to the equipment operator. all lifting device pins of 2 inch diameter or larger must have a magnetic particle inspection before they are placed in service. All lifting fixtures must be inspected at least once every four years (or upon request), using magnetic particle detection or other appropriate methods. The Responsible Safety Officer must ensure that proof testing is performed on all lifting devices and fixtures are used and maintained correctly. Upon request, the Responsible Safety Officer will provide a current test report to the user. For equipment designed at Employer, the Responsible Safety Officer must provide the user with the information required to operate the lifting device or fixture safely.
The Responsible Safety Officer is responsible for the design, fabrication, and testing of lifting fixtures. The design stress for lifting fixtures must not exceed one-fifth (1/5) the ultimate strength of the material at the operating temperature. If welded fabrication is used, the design stress must take into consideration any weakening effects of welding, such as those that occur in aluminum alloys. If practical, avoid welding in the fabrication of lifting fixtures; however, if welding is used, design and fabrication must conform to the latest standards of the American Welding Society (AWS). Careful, thoughtful design and follow-up are required. The following rules apply when designing welded units: There must be no possibility of subjecting welds to tearing loads. Stresses in welds must be substantially uniform. Where possible, design lifting fixtures so that the main loads are carried only by structural members, plates, or shear pins rather than by welds. Examine this possibility carefully. Welded fabrications must be proof tested to twice the maximum rated load followed by a magnetic particle inspection or other appropriate crack inspection method. Primary load carrying welds and welds in tension must be x-rayed. The screw-thread engagement required for conservative development of the full strength of a screw fastener depends upon the screw fastener material and the material of the threaded member. If the fastener is made of the same material as the female threaded member, e.g., a low-carbon steel bolt and a hole threaded into low-carbon steel, an engagement of at least 1-1/2 diameters is required. A hardened steel screw (Allen screw) in mild steel aluminum alloy, copper, or cast iron must have a threaded engagement of 1-1/2 diameters. The Responsible Safety Officer must approve other material combinations. Safety hoist rings may be used to make lifts up to their rated load when screwed 2 hoist ring bolt diameters into materials such as aluminum alloy, copper, or cast iron. When special high strength bolts are required, consider the use of nonstandard pitch threads to avoid the possibility of using the wrong bolt in the lifting device. any bolt used as part of Employer-designed lifting fixtures or pickup devices must be tested to two (2) times its rated desirable to maintain a supply of tested bolts in the event that one is lost. Once a lifting device or fixture is in the hands of the user, it is the user’s responsibility to ensure that the proper bolt is inserted to the proper depth and correctly torqued.